Allo' Expat Saudi Arabia - Connecting Expats in Saudi Arabia
Main Homepage
Allo' Expat Saudi Arabia Logo


 
Check our Rates


Check our Rates

History of Saudi Arabia
 
 
 

Pre 20th Century History

The Arabian Peninsula -- including Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, the Sultanate of Oman, Yemen and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia -- had been practicing agricultural, herding and hunting cultures for thousands of years.

Because they lived on important ancient trade routes, the ancestors of today's Saudi Arabians were influenced by such varying civilizations as Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Rome, Byzantium, India, Persia and China.

The Holy Quran was revealed to the Prophet Mohammed in the western Arabian cities of Makkah and Madinah beginning about 610 AD.

The birth of the new faith of Islam was an important historical event. Inspired by their new religion, the Arabs expanded from Arabia, spreading Islam and the Arabic language as far west as the Atlantic Ocean and as far east as central Asia.

The birth of the new faith of Islam was an important historical event. Inspired by their new religion, the Arabs expanded from Arabia, spreading Islam and the Arabic language as far west as the Atlantic Ocean and as far east as central Asia.

The Islamic civilization remained vigorous for centuries, providing stability and advancing human knowledge when most of western Europe was in a state of chaos and superstition known to historians as the Dark Ages. In the 13th century, the Mongol invasions dealt a devastating blow to the Arabs' eastern lands and their empire began to decline.

The first ruler of the First House of Saud was Muhammad bin Saud (forebear of the present rulers). He started as ruler of Ad-Dar'iyah, where he joined forces with Imam Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab, the eminent religious leader, in what could be called the first alliance.

Muhammad bin Saud concluded an agreement with Imam Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab that together they would bring the Arabs of the peninsula back to the true faith of the Islamic religion. They confirmed this agreement with an oath in 1744.

Muhammad bin Saud's son, Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud, ruled from 1765 (1179 AH) through 1803, retaining the association with Imam Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab in the same capacity as his father and continuing to reform Islam in the peninsula.

Abdul Aziz successfully captured the city of Riyadh in 1773. The combination of a deeply held theological conviction and military success proved irresistible to many. As a result, the Saudi state began to spread rapidly and within fifteen years had extended its authority all over Nejd.

After the death of Abdul Aziz, his son, Saud, ruled from 1803 through 1814. In 1803, Saud bin Abdul Aziz, provoked by the Sharif of Makkah, marched on the Holy City and took it. There he and his men performed Hajj. The Saudi Kingdom now stretched from Nejd to Hasa in the west and south towards Najran.

Such an increase in authority was not to pass unchallenged. The Turkish Empire concluded that action must be taken and invited Muhammad Ali, the Viceroy of Egypt (which at that time fell within the Ottoman sphere of influence) to dismantle the work of Muhammad bin Saud, his son and grandson, and to put an end to the emerging nation.

Before Saud bin Abdul Aziz died in 1814 (1230 AH), Muhammad Ali had retaken the Hijaz.

Saud's successor, his son Abdullah (who ruled until 1818), was unable to halt the Egyptian advance. Ad-Dar'iyah was taken and Abdullah bin Saud removed to Istanbul where his captors executed him. Riyadh was captured in 1818.


See more information on the next page... (next)


 

 
 
   



 


copyrights © AlloExpat.com
2015 | Policy